Create unique and accurate page titles.
Accurately describe the content
Create new tags for each page
Use brief, but descriptive titles
Make use of the description meta tag
This one amused me, since so many 'experts' have said that meta tags are dead, but Google is saying that the content tag is useful in some circumstances.
Improve the structure of URLs
Create proper, sensible folder structures
Use real words
Provide one URL to reach a document
Make the site easier to navigate
Good quality content
Write better anchor text
Use header tags appropriately
Optimise use of images
Effective use of robots.txt
All in all, it's a very useful and interesting document which is worth spending some time going through if you want to optimise your website.