Google provides access to a variety of different features, and to save space they pop these up into the menu under the space bar, where you can access options such as Images or News for example. There's also a handy 'More' option, which can be used to really show you the real range of what you can search for. At least... it used to. It doesn't any more. I'm getting 4 options now, instead of the 10 or so that I used to get. The options are vaguely context sensitive, based on the search that you run. 'Libraries' gave me Videos, Shopping, Flights and Applications, while 'Librarian' changed the first of those to Maps. Mostly however, the options were those I've already listed. The people over at the Google Forums are absolutely hopping mad about it, and I don't blame them.
What about all of the other neat little ways you could search you may wonder? My feeling is that Google is starting to hide them away to use the excuse of 'no-one ever uses this feature' when they want to cut it. However, until then, most of these options are still available in one form or another. I've listed some of them below:
Google Blogsearch http://www.google.com/blogsearch
Google Discussions https://www.google.com/webhp?tbm=dsc
Google Finance https://www.google.com/finance
Google Patents https://www.google.com/webhp?tbm=pts
Google Recipes https://www.google.com/webhp?tbm=rcp
Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/
If you like using these I would be afraid, very afraid. Quite how long before they go the way of Google Reader etc I wouldn't like to guess. I still can't get my head around Google's thinking over this - there are plenty of new search engines coming along, particularly in the social media area where Google is weak, but instead of actually innovating, they are retrenching and hoping their name will carry them through. I just wonder how long they can sustain that - particularly in the light of Facebook's new search options.
Google Shopping http://www.google.com/shopping